Michael P. FRANKΙS  GALLERY

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TURKEY
27 September 1989. Sinekcibeli Pass. Between villages of Kemer and Gömbe, 30km north of Kas, by road marker indicating 1545m altitude. Open to dense Cedrus - Juniperus excelsa forest, of natural origin though now managed for timber production with recently felled and replanted areas in the forest. As elsewhere, all of the Cedar here was of slender crowned, bluish foliaged trees, 20-25 m tall and 30-90 cm diameter; the Juniper were 10-20 m tall and 40-90 cm diameter.
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Juniperus excelsa
1
Juniperus excelsa
- Tree
Tree by road, 14 m tall, about 1500 m altitude.
SW Turkey
27 September 1989. NE slopes of Ak Dag ["White Mt"], 5 km west of village of Gömbe. Open Juniper wood heavily grazed by goats from treeline at 1800-2000 m down to c1500 m; trees 5-16m tall, many old and stout, to 1 m diameter. J. foetidissima and J. excelsa readily distinguished by thicker, greener shoots of the former, which was also more attractive. J. oxycedrus not more than 3 m shrubs, severely goat damaged with very little seed. Ak Dag is a 3000 m limestone mountain, free drained at above c. 2000 m, which combined with grazing and summer drought from June to the end of September makes establishment of woody plants impossible. At c. 1800-2000 m numerous permanent springs occur; forest is widespread below this level.
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Juniperus foetidissima
2
Juniperus foetidissima
- Old Tree
Very old, very twisted, gnarled tree of 5 m, at about 2000 m. The highest tree at this site; another similar adjacent tree was without berries.
SW Turkey
28 September 1989. Gömbe 10 km SSW to Sütlegen along eastern foothills of Ak Dag. From 900 to 1200 m, with cultivated land in irrigated valleys and mixed conifer forest on intervening ridges, with pure Pinus brutia at lower levels grading into Pinus/Cedrus/Juniperus at higher levels.
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Pinus nigra caramanica
3
Pinus nigra subsp. nigra var. caramanica
- Trees
Trees at about 1000 m in mixed Pine forest.
SW Turkey
29 September 1989. Sütlegen 8 km WNW to Yayla «avda along S foothills of Ak Dag. Altitudes 900-1200 m; habitats as previous day.
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Pinus nigra caramanica
4
Pinus nigra subsp. nigra var. caramanica
- Trees
Trees 20-25 m.
SW Turkey
30 September 1989. Yayla «avda to southern slopes of Ak Dag, reaching 1800-2000 m. Irrigated cultivated land to c. 1000 m, then forest of Pinus brutia to c. 1100 m, then mixed P. brutia/nigra/ Juniperus excelsa forest to c. 1200 m, then P. nigra/J. excelsa/foetidissima forest to c. 1500 m, with clearings for agriculture, then either pure P. nigra or pure Cedrus libani forest (both with some J. foetidissima) to treeline at 1800-2000 m, also with agricultural clearings and also bare plant-free (except for scattered goat resistant herbs) stony areas.
5
Juniperus foetidissima
5
Juniperus foetidissima
- Tree
About 1.3 m stem diameter.
SW Turkey

6
    Cedrus libani subsp. stenocoma
- Tree
SW Turkey
6
Cedrus libani
7
Cedrus libani
7
Cedrus libani subsp. stenocoma
- Trees
On Ak Dag, above Gömbe, c. 1800-2000 m altitude. Several trees in magnificent ancient natural stand of trees up to 25 m tall and 2 m+ diameter, with frequent though heavily browsed natural regeneration. The old, storm-damaged Cedar is about 1.8 m stem diameter. October 1989.
SW Turkey
8
Cedrus libani
8
Cedrus libani subsp. stenocoma
- Trees
Observe mature cones.
SW Turkey
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Cedrus libani
9
Cedrus libani subsp. stenocoma
- Tree
Observe male 'flowers'.
SW Turkey
1st October 1989. Yayla «avda, 6 km west to Arsaköy. Generally downhill from c. 900 m to c. 700 m, though crossing ridge of c. 1000 m. Agricultural land and Pinus brutia forest and some heavily grazed Quercus calliprinos scrub.
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Pinus brutia
10
Pinus brutia
- Trees
Several trees at 800-900 m.    
SW Turkey

11
Pinus brutia
- Tree
SW Turkey
11
Pinus brutia
2 October 1989. Arsaköy 10km SW to Palamut. Agriculture and oak scrub at c. 700 m, then steeply downhill to c. 300 m through broadleaf scrub; more cultivation in well watered valley with Cypress and broadleaves, a low dry ridge with Pinus brutia forest and finally at c. 100 m flat dry agriculture with scattered large Quercus macrolepis.
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Cupressus sempervirens
12
Cupressus sempervirens
- Trees
Very fine trees of the wild type, possibly planted but more likely naturalised or wild; the tallest trees seen in Turkey, to 25 m tall, with open broad conic spruce-like crowns of horizontal branches and pendulous branchlets, appearing very vigorous. Leading shoots on young trees open and nodding to one side. Seed from two trees about 20-25 m tall.
SW Turkey

Photos : © Michael P. Frankіs

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26 June 2000
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